The Harriet H. Werley Collection: American Army Nurse Serving in the Mediterranean

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by Susan Dykes

Every once-in-awhile a collection comes our way that, at first, looks to be unassuming but upon further investigation turns into quite an interesting story.  Last fall, the UWM Archives shared with AGSL, a small collection of photographs taken by the late Dr. Harriet H. Werley (b. 1914 – d. 2002), Distinguished Professor in the UWM College of Nursing.  The photographs were included in the Harriet H. Werley Papers, a collection that “documents Harriet H. Werley’s long and distinguished nursing career…” Werley took these photographs while she was serving in the United States Army Nurse Corps (ANC), between 1941 and 1944, in the Mediterranean theater during World War II.

Among the 210 photographs, Werley captured the landscape and places of interest in Algeria, France, Italy and Morocco.  Although she was in active service, her photos were primarily taken from a tourist’s perspective.  She appears in only one image, at the Pitti Palace in Florence, wearing her Army nurse’s uniform and a delightful smile on her face.

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Italy, Helen H. Werley in front of Pitti Palace in Florence http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agseurope/id/6180

Others show a military parade moving through the streets of Oran, Algeria; the Sultan’s Palace in Casablanca, Morocco; ruins of the Great Mosque of Mansoura, Algeria; the Port of Oran and Fort Santa Cruz, Algeria; military nurses touring the gardens at Versailles, France; the waterfront at Cannes, France; an American military Fourth of July fair in Livorno, Italy; an American Military horse race in Pisa, Italy; and many other historic, tourist spots.

Algeria_troops_marching_through_Oran_street_in_parade

Algeria, troops marching through Oran street in parade http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agsafrica/id/6139

 

Algeria_view_of_Port_of_Oran_and_Fort_Santa_Cruz_on_hill

Algeria, view of Port of Oran and Fort Santa Cruz on hill http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agsafrica/id/6176

 

Morocco_gardens_and_Sultans_Palace_in_Casablanca

Morocco, gardens and Sultan’s Palace in Casablanca http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agsafrica/id/6146

 

Algeria_ruins_of_Great_Mosque_of_Mansoura_in_Tlemcen_Province

Algeria, ruins of Great Mosque of Mansoura in Tlemcen Province http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agsafrica/id/6145

 

Italy_American_military_at_horse_race_in_Pisa

Italy, American military at horse race in Pisa http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agseurope/id/6124

However, even Werley’s tourist eye couldn’t escape the harsh reality of the war.  In one photo she captures a cross at the grave of a German soldier buried in Italy.  In others she shows how life continued on as people made their way around bombed out buildings in Florence and Livorno, and the bombed out remnants of buildings and abandoned military bunkers in Cannes.

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Italy, grave of German soldier in Livorno http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agseurope/id/6122

 

Italy_people_moving_through_rubble_of_bombed_buildings_in_Florence

Italy, people moving through rubble of bombed buildings in Florence http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agseurope/id/6178

 

France_military_bunker_and_bombed_out_building_in_Cannes
France, military bunker and bombed out building in Cannes http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/agseurope/id/6166

As a whole, the collection provides a sense of Werley’s experience, as an American nurse serving in a foreign land, documenting her travels and touching upon the overarching reason she was there.

What I find most fascinating about Harriet Werley, is her photographs not only serve to document World War II, they also represent a precursor to what will turn out to be Werley’s extraordinary career in nursing research and health care informatics.  After the war, Werley worked in the Office of the Surgeon General, was assigned to the Department of Atomic Casualties Studies at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and then she was appointed Chief of the Department of Nursing.  She became Chief Nurse for the U.S. 8th Army Headquarters in Korea in 1962 and retired, as Lieutenant Colonel, from the Army Nurse Corps in 1964.

According to the U.S. Army Medical Department, it was at Walter Reed that she became “dismayed” at the lack of research positions and the realization that nurses were not more involved in studies. As a result she decided to concentrate her career on nursing research.  After obtaining her Ph.D. in 1969, she promoted nursing research development through faculty and administrative positions at a variety of universities, including the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, became founding editor of Research in Nursing and Health and the Annual Review of Nursing Research, and was instrumental in the development of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NDMS).  As described in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, Werley “…became the first nurse informatician even before the field had been named.” While at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, she participated in IBM sponsored conferences to “identify data processing needs in health care and the potential for computer applications.”

This little, unassuming, yet historically important collection, turned out to be originated by a woman who, according to Laurie K Glass RN, PhD, FAAN, Professor Emerita and Director, Center for Nursing History, UW- Milwaukee College of Nursing, “…pioneered the use of computers and informatics in the health care arena.”  We are pleased to be able to make available Harriet H. Werley’s images in the AGSL collections.

 

See all of Harriet H. Werley’s images in the American Geographical Society Library Digital Photo Archive:

http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/werley/field/creato/mode/all/conn/and/order/nosort

See the finding aid for the Harriet H. Werley Papers:

http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/wiarchives.uw-mil-uwmmss0284

Sources:

A salute to one of our own. Harriet Helen Werley. (n.d.) U. S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History. U.S. Army. Retrieved from http://history.amedd.army.mil/ancwebsite/articles/harrietwerley.html

Ozbolt JG. Harriet Helen Werley, PhD, RN, FAAN, FACMI: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army (Ret.) October 12, 1914—October 14, 2002. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2003;10(2):224-225. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1276.  Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC150375/

 

Road Maps in Transition: 1920-1925

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by Judy Aulik

    Wisconsin officially numbered and sign posted its highways between 1916 and 1918, following the state trunk highway system (STH) designed by A.R. Hirst. Illinois followed in 1918 with its first round of state bond highways (SBI), and Michigan began its M system in 1919. After a five year gap, when Rand McNally resumed publishing road maps in 1917, later coupled with a proprietary, rudimentary, coated cardboard road marking system and an arbitrary space saving numbering system, it resulted in a peculiar set of road maps with five distinct highway designations, including the blazed trails, such as the Lincoln Highway. Had Rand McNally chosen the detail allowed by Wisconsin’s unusual county trunk highway lettering systems, it would have had six!

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     The Wisconsin State Historical Society has digitized maps of this era, as they have unquestionably passed out of copyright. Wisconsin, northern Michigan, and northern Illinois comprise District No. 8 in the Auto Trails Map series. Cartographer John Brink had an entry in a company contest which won him $100. His big idea: make a clearer highway map by numbering the major roads and trails, using a map legend which assigns a Rand McNally route number to each trail.

     However, the decluttering concept fell by the wayside as his employer began to sell advertising, primarily for garages and hotels. printed in red in the clear space left.

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     Clearly, the extra information could prove helpful to the auto tourist. However, Brink’s Rand McNally route numbers, in white on a dark rectangle, generally conflicted with the route numbers used by the states. For example, the National Parks Pike, its eastern terminus in Madison, was designated as No. 9 on the Rand system; STH 19 (designating the highway as the 9th longest in Wisconsin) from Madison west; and blazed in red, black, and white for the National Parks Pike. After 1926, the Federal Highway system, which took over the best state routes, cleared up the confusion. The No. 9 route east of the capital city eventually became US 151; plus STH 19 west, on into Iowa (Primary Route 19; also the National Parks Pike), US 18.

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    Other highways the Federal Highway System also subsumed included SBI 4, which became US 66; a westerly stretch of the Yellowstone Trail in north central Wisconsin, which became US 10; and the mother of all renamings: the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial Highway (ca. 1915), which became SBI 5 (ca. 1918-1967), which also was co-blazed as the poorly publicized and long forgotten Atlantic-Yellowstone-Pacific Trail  (1923, per the Iowa DoT) in northern Illinois, which was taken over by US 20 (ca. 1938, now Business US 20 in segments). Confusing, yes, but that’s why road maps and highway history are so fascinating!

 Sources:

http://cdm15932.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/maps/id/14541

https://iowadot.gov/autotrails/atlantic-yellowstone-pacific-highway

 

Special thanks to the AGSL guest blogger, Judy Aulik. With an extensive road map collection of her own, Judy Aulik  has served as past President of the Road Map Collectors Association, an organization founded in 1996.  Now boasting a membership of several hundred in the US, Canada, and Europe, the club publishes a quarterly newsletter, has a website, Facebook page, and hosts an annual “Road Map Expo.”  Judy is a retired Adult Services Librarian with a PhD from UW-Madison. She recently spoke to the Wisconsin Map Society about the history of the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club, and its influence on highway signage and mapping. 

 

French influence on US land development

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by Sam Balistreri-Daum

A couple months back, while cataloging the British Admiralty charts in our nautical charts collection, I noticed along the coast and riverbanks of Georgetown, Guyana (then British Guyana) from 1938 and 1939 a series of parallel lines running perpendicular to the shores with names written between each line.

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Georgetown, Guyana 1938 (Click on map for larger view)
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Georgetown, Guyana 1939 (Click on map for larger view)
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Georgetown, Guyana 1939 (Click on map for larger view)

The long, narrow strips of land depicted on these 20th Century British charts are actually an interesting form of human geography called “long lots” or “ribbon farms” that come from the semi-feudal seigneurial system used by the French to administer their agricultural land in the colonies of North and South America.  In this system, families would farm long narrow strips of land and pay rent under an agreement with the local seigneur or lord. The main advantage for farmers under this system was waterfront access for transportation and living in close proximity to neighboring farms while still having plenty of land.  Some long lots were a few hundred feet wide while being miles deep.  While the system was relatively outdated and was not always administratively maintained in the New World (especially once territory came under the control of another government such as the British), we can still see evidence of long lots on maps throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries and even in today’s satellite imagery.  In the AGS Library Digital Map Collection it did not take long to find examples in both New Orleans (1884) and Prairie du Chien (1820) to find more examples of long lots:

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New Orleans, Louisiana 1884 (Click on map for larger view)

 

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Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 1820 (click on image for larger view)

Long lots are even visible today in satellite imagery near Quebec City along the St. Lawrence River.  This image was taken from Google Maps:

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(Click on map for larger view)

These maps show us just one example of the many things that maps can tell us about our world and about ourselves.  These maps and many more are available at the AGS Library and online in the digital collections.  If you’d like to read more about long lots and the seignieurial system, the following websites were useful in gathering additional information for this post:

Michigan State Univeristy: Long Lots: How they came to be:

http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/long_lots.html

Wikipeida.org: “Ribbon Farm”:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribbon_farm

View the New Orleans map in the AGS Library Digital Map Collection

View the Prairie du Chien map in the AGS Library Digital Map Collection

Cartographic Craftsmanship

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by Sam Balistreri-Daum

 

One aspect of the 19th and 20th Century nautical charts that continues to amaze me is the craftsmanship.  I am currently working on the AGS Library’s set of Argentinian charts.  Working with charts in a variety of languages means learning the various nuances of how the language is used in cartography, especially abbreviations. One abbreviation that had us scratching our heads for a little while was “dib.”, which we would see in the bottom right margin of the sheet accompanied by a name.  I later found that this stood for dubujado or drawn and was again impressed by the level of craftsmanship and precision that is involved in cartography, especially in the days before computers.

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While cataloging the Argentinian charts I came across a chart containing keys for abbreviations, signals and topographic and hydrographic symbols used in the drawing of the charts in the series.  This is a reference guide for those who would use the charts.  Note the variety of styles that were done by hand before maps were engraved and then printed (click the image for an enlarged view).

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…And now for something different but related. How did a cartographer learn the skills necessary to draw maps?  For an example of this we turn to the Practischer Entwurf eines neu zuerrichtenden Urbariums (1792).  The book contains practical illustrations of (fictional) maps meant as a “how to” guide for cartographic drawing.  This volume contains beautiful colored examples of cartography, but perhaps the most fun are the fictional places depicted on the maps.  One map features such locations as Schmaltz Aecker (lard lands), Hader Aecker (discord lands) and a section labeled Anger that despite translating to “green” is actually colored in yellow.

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Milwaukee’s First Brownie–William Wallace Rowland Part Three

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by Judy Aulik

1925nowilakes
1925 Wisconsin Official Highway Map

Beginning ca. 1924, state official maps had improved dramatically. The distractions of the Poole Bros. base map were gone. Improved highways were noted, which had always been a staple of the “Brownie” columns. The Milwaukee Journal Tour Club began to publish more specialized maps, such as Northern Wisconsin Lakes and their stand-alone Wisconsin maps, printed on heavy stock, in addition to their Call of the Open Road books.

The first blow to the Tour Club came when Wisconsin changed from the large detour maps, installed on large wooden signs at intersections by highway contractors, to the overprinted detour maps issued regularly. Each week, the Tour Club’s Information Station had updated detour information to go with the maps which membership conferred. Another Milwaukee Journal Tour Club function was superseded, although years before, AAA had begun to offer similar service.

After the Great Depression hit, The Milwaukee Journal tried to advertise its Tour Club more prominently in other newspapers. It offered more atlases and transcontinental maps as other states developed their state highway systems, and as the Federal Highway system, introduced in 1926, made cross-country travel more common.

In the same era, W. W. Rowland assumed more responsibility with the Journal. Map offerings by the Tour Club began to dwindle, and by 1933 the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club ceased to exist. Perhaps coincidentally, oil company advertising, especially road maps, reached their artistic peak. Milwaukee local Wadham’s Oil, in conjunction with Langwith, distributed beautiful maps before and after its merger with Socony-Mobil. National companies used either H. H. Gousha or Rand McNally to produce their maps, and Shell and Sinclair are especially noted for their advertising maps of the early ’30s, distributed free, of course. You can only guess what went through Brownie’s mind when the decision to terminate the Tour Club had to be made. Was it nostalgia for the earliest highway trips with his mother? Was there wistfulness for the days he coupled automotive trials and road reviews with his faithful “Poor Cuss?” Or did he merely say to his staff, “Job well done!”?

Eleven more years passed. His sister continued a woman’s column as he reached the vice-presidency at the Journal. In 1944, William Wallace Rowland passed, but “Brownie” lived on in the hearts of Milwaukeeans.

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-End of series-

Part 1

Part 2
Portions of these blog entries came from research for the Road Map Collectors Association’s publication, The Legend,  and an April 23rd, 2017 presentation at the American Geographical Society Library.

Special thanks to the AGSL guest blogger, Judy Aulik. With an extensive road map collection of her own, Judy Aulik  has served as past President of the Road Map Collectors Association, an organization founded in 1996.  Now boasting a membership of several hundred in the US, Canada, and Europe, the club publishes a quarterly newsletter, has a website, Facebook page, and hosts an annual “Road Map Expo.”  Judy is a retired Adult Services Librarian with a PhD from UW-Madison. She recently spoke to the Wisconsin Map Society about the history of the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club, and its influence on highway signage and mapping. 

 

Milwaukee’s First Brownie–William Wallace Rowland Part Two

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by Judy Aulik

In a strange burst of synchronicity a century ago, two numbered highway systems arose: that of commercial map publisher Rand McNally, and that of the State of Wisconsin. One interpreted the national blazed trails, the other rejected it entirely. W.W. Rowland catalyzed the latter.

1920rmnshsRand McNally cartographer John Brink understood that a road map with written trail names along its roads was confusingly cluttered. His $100 idea was to place a legend on the Auto Trails (and Junior Auto Trails) maps with a number, the trail marking, and the trail name. Routes were tagged with the number in white in a dark rectangle. Although Rand McNally did attempt to sign these roads, the waterproofed cardboard signs were unlikely to survive the way Goodrich’s Guide Posts would. The clutter Brink removed, however, reappeared in advertising of area hotels and restaurants in certain road maps.

Consider using a highway map to navigate. The maps of the last 90 years had alphanumeric symbols printed on each highway, and road quality was designated by the type or color of line used. Try navigating through a major city if these signs are absent from the road! Navigating the state had the same trouble prior to 1918. Before the State Highway Trunk System, you were lucky to have a map. The Journal map insets, and accompanying text, plus The Call of the Open Road showed you if, for instance, a road was unimproved and likely to be muddy, but unless a trailblazer had marked the route, you wouldn’t know if you were on the correct road unless it followed a railroad or river.

After Wisconsin State Highway Commission employees A.D. Hirst and W.O. Hotchkiss developed the system, numbering the highways from 10-99 according to the length of each, in one mad week in May, 1918, county highway departments erected numbered road signs. The first major style was a wooden post with a flared top. The cut yielded triangular sign, with the route number above WIS in the tapered point was painted on the face. It was also used as a milepost, with the mile number painted on the round post beneath the route sign.

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Although the state official 1917 map was not intended for the tourist, it bore some resemblance to the modern road map. By 1918, it was improved. Blazed trails were deemed illegal in the state, although only the Yellowstone Trail was truly affected. However, the map still looked a bit makeshift, with the state trunk highways in red, overlaid on the Poole Bros. map base. Mileages between cities or intersections were still unlabeled, and highway surfacing unmarked. In use, until the mid-’20s, Wisconsin official maps, although free and accurate, fell short of the nearly streamlined maps The Milwaukee Journal and its Tour Club provided at low cost for the auto tourist.

-End Part Two-

Part 1

Part 3

Special thanks to the AGSL guest blogger, Judy Aulik. With an extensive road map collection of her own, Judy Aulik  has served as past President of the Road Map Collectors Association, an organization founded in 1996.  Now boasting a membership of several hundred in the US, Canada, and Europe, the club publishes a quarterly newsletter, has a website, Facebook page, and hosts an annual “Road Map Expo.”  Judy is a retired Adult Services Librarian with a PhD from UW-Madison. She recently spoke to the Wisconsin Map Society about the history of the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club, and its influence on highway signage and mapping. 

Milwaukee’s First Brownie–William Wallace Rowland Part 1 of 3

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By Judy Aulik

wwrowland The Milwaukee Journal has a unique role in the history of Wisconsin’s State Trunk Highway system, thanks to one man: “Brownie” Rowland. Born in 1878, he worked his way up from office boy “Wallie” to becoming the Journal’s vice-president. But in the meantime, he was known to millions as “Brownie,” accompanied by his sidekick on the Wisconsin roadways, “The Poor Cuss.”

Early on, Rowland realized that two things were needed to improve the lives of auto tourists: good maps and good trailblazing. Nationally, beginning in 1912, the few good roads were known as “Blazed Trails,” and the best known of these was the Lincoln Highway. Predating the more well-known route, however, was the Yellowstone Trail, the only transcontinental blazed (named) trail to pass through Wisconsin.

In true Wisconsin spirit, he set out–at first with his mother as navigator–to 16806991_1343151472405824_4377947373314305350_nmark the better highways of the state as Journal Roads. These mapped routes were printed in the Sunday Journal. Parallel to this effort was that by the Wisconsin Advancement Association, which blazed convenient roadside objects with geometric blazes in red, white, or yellow; considerably more primitive than the Journal markings.

By early 1916, an ad in the Journal urged people to keep a scrapbook of maps clipped from the columns found in the sport section. Maps could come from other sources, such as B.F. Goodrich Company promotions. But something was brewing which lasted to the end of Prohibition: The Call of the Open Road.

1916fcThe 1916 edition wasn’t revolutionary. The maps were the insets previously seen, plus a state map of Tentative Main Travelled Roads of Wisconsin, from late 1915. Some of the WAA trails were shown. However, the narrative style of previous guidebooks and the concept of navigating by landmarks were to be replaced with maps.

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Final two image credits: Rowland, William W. The Call of the Open Road: Helpful Maps of Wisconsin Tours (Milwaukee, Wis.: Milwaukee Journal, 1916). Online facsimile at http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1680

-End part one-

Part 2

Part 3
Special thanks to the AGSL guest blogger, Judy Aulik. With an extensive road map collection of her own, Judy Aulik  has served as past President of the Road Map Collectors Association, an organization founded in 1996.  Now boasting a membership of several hundred in the US, Canada, and Europe, the club publishes a quarterly newsletter, has a website, Facebook page, and hosts an annual “Road Map Expo.”  Judy is a retired Adult Services Librarian with a PhD from UW-Madison. She recently spoke to the Wisconsin Map Society about the history of the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club, and its influence on highway signage and mapping.