by Judy Aulik
It’s early days in auto travel. How successful would you believe a transcontinental highway spanning the continent would be? Now, what if you learned that New York City, Baltimore, Columbus, Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, and San Francisco were some of the cities the fledgling highway was routed through? Sounds great, doesn’t it? However, Pikes Peak-Ocean to Ocean Highway (PPOO) emphasized connecting state capitals and county seats. And despite the route shown in the 1915 map, it bypassed many of the above.
According to http://www.ppoo.org, the route was so poorly planned that only US 36 overlaid any significant part of the PPOO: Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and Kansas had sections which later became part of the federal highway system. From the July, 1919 issue of Automobile Journal, we learn that associations that contributed to the PPOO included the William Penn Highway Association, the Hannibal-Springfield Highway Association, the Hannibal and St. Joseph Cross State Highway Association, The Rock Island Highway Association (Kansas), the Lincoln Highway Association (Colorado), the Overland Trail Club (Nevada), and the Feather River Route Association (California).
In its original Illinois routing of the PPOO, only Decatur, an agricultural industry center, and the capital, Springfield, lay on the route. By 1924, both Danville and Urbana wooed the PPOO highway officials into using SBI (State Bond Issue; an early designator for Illinois highways ) 10 as its local path. Since its PPOO days, SBI 10 has had multiple changes to its route. By 1927, Urbana appeared completely prepared for tourism, according to articles in the Urbana Courier and the Daily Illini. There was a significant cluster of automotive service providers on Urbana’s Main Street, now mainly residential. A 1923 tourist camp underwent improvements to its Crystal Lake park location through 1927.
A 1927 map shown on “The Appian Way of America” web page shows how the final route deviated from design. Columbus, Indianapolis, and even San Francisco no longer appeared on the PPOO. Instead, it terminated in Los Angeles. By that time, a motorist could use the straightforward US 66 instead from Chicago westward.
Like so many of the highly logical routes proposed by the National Highway Association, the Pikes Peak-Ocean to Ocean Highway was swerved by civic boosters and emotional appeals. However, the final product never rivaled either the Lincoln Highway or the National Old Trails Road, later encompassed by US 30 and US 40, respectively, east of the Rockies.
by Angie Cope
The AGS Library recently acquired a map of the world on a north polar projection. The map was made by French geographer Philippe Buache (1700-1770) who was one of the first to recognize the importance of watersheds. Buache trained under the geographer Guillaume Delisle and was married to Delisle’s daughter.
This map shows mountains and how each flows via rivers to the seas. Buache correctly identified the existence of Alaska and the Bering Strait, years before they were officially discovered.
On the map he depicts an Antarctic Sea which turned out to be inaccurate.
The AGS Library copy of this map is larger than other known copies at 56 x 74 cm in size (compared to 34 x 46 cm of other maps). The AGS Library map also has “Xs” in the top right and left corners on both the front and back of the map.
The text along the edges describes various expeditions and includes mention of Bouvet de Lozier’s 1738-1739 discovery of icebergs between 200-300 feet high and half a league to 2 or 3 leagues in circumference.
The AGSL copy of this map is available at the UWM Digital Map Collection. Click here to view it in more detail including zoom, pan, etc.
by Judy Aulik
One of the author’s favorite oil companies to issue road maps is Wisconsin’s own Wadham Oil Company. Founded in 1888, early on it specialized in oils and greases: gasoline had a very limited market in the day. As highways were built and auto travel became commonplace, an obvious place to advertise was on the road maps nearly every traveler carried.
From the beginning of its gasoline marketing, Wadham produced a superior product called “straight run gasoline,” i.e., the hydrocarbon fraction obtained strictly by distilling petroleum. Compared to other fractions such as kerosene and heating oils, the gasoline suited to automotive use was rare in many oil feedstocks. Petrochemical tricks such as catalytic cracking and reforming were yet to come into use. Therefore, Wadham had to charge a small premium for its gasoline, considered to be a premium product. Indeed, the original gas was designed for a colder climate, and before the mid-1920s, was lead-free.
Wadham capitalized on its reputation by featuring images of country club life and fancy autos on its map covers. Its stations were distinctive even before architect Alexander C. Eschweiler designed his famous “Pagoda” gas stations, outstanding in their exotic nature, yet blending harmoniously in Wisconsin towns and cities.
By the time this map was issued in 1931, Wadham had been purchased by Vacuum Oil Company, precursor to Socony-Vacuum (which eventually became Mobil Oil, and culminated in ExxonMobil) However, the first three map issues under the new parent remained truer to the Wadham red, black, and yellow color scheme than to its new parent’s. Some Road Map Collectors Association members would debate whether the map shown is a Wadham map or a Milwaukee Journal Tour Club map issue. It was obtainable at the Tour Club’s Branch Stations. Fewer would opine that, as the cartographical information is that from the Wisconsin State Highway Commission, it should be considered a state official map.
Wadham’s first reported map was a 1925 issue, which was issued inside a small cardstock cover. At this point, Wadham gasoline stations were part of a Wisconsin Independent Oil Jobbers Association, and photographic evidence shows limited use of the association’s spread eagle trademark and signage. The next map considered by the RMCA to be a Wadham issue dates to 1932. The 1933 map used Langwith cartography; the 1934 cartographer is unknown; and the remainder, issued from 1935-1940, used General Drafting cartography, as did the Socony-Vacuum maps of the era. By 1935, the Mobil Pegasus had replaced the chemical industry imagery of the Wadham signage.
Does anyone else know of Wadham maps from the 1926-1930 range? If so, the author would like to know of their existence in detail.
by Susan Dykes
Every once-in-awhile a collection comes our way that, at first, looks to be unassuming but upon further investigation turns into quite an interesting story. Last fall, the UWM Archives shared with AGSL, a small collection of photographs taken by the late Dr. Harriet H. Werley (b. 1914 – d. 2002), Distinguished Professor in the UWM College of Nursing. The photographs were included in the Harriet H. Werley Papers, a collection that “documents Harriet H. Werley’s long and distinguished nursing career…” Werley took these photographs while she was serving in the United States Army Nurse Corps (ANC), between 1941 and 1944, in the Mediterranean theater during World War II.
Among the 210 photographs, Werley captured the landscape and places of interest in Algeria, France, Italy and Morocco. Although she was in active service, her photos were primarily taken from a tourist’s perspective. She appears in only one image, at the Pitti Palace in Florence, wearing her Army nurse’s uniform and a delightful smile on her face.
Others show a military parade moving through the streets of Oran, Algeria; the Sultan’s Palace in Casablanca, Morocco; ruins of the Great Mosque of Mansoura, Algeria; the Port of Oran and Fort Santa Cruz, Algeria; military nurses touring the gardens at Versailles, France; the waterfront at Cannes, France; an American military Fourth of July fair in Livorno, Italy; an American Military horse race in Pisa, Italy; and many other historic, tourist spots.
However, even Werley’s tourist eye couldn’t escape the harsh reality of the war. In one photo she captures a cross at the grave of a German soldier buried in Italy. In others she shows how life continued on as people made their way around bombed out buildings in Florence and Livorno, and the bombed out remnants of buildings and abandoned military bunkers in Cannes.
As a whole, the collection provides a sense of Werley’s experience, as an American nurse serving in a foreign land, documenting her travels and touching upon the overarching reason she was there.
What I find most fascinating about Harriet Werley, is her photographs not only serve to document World War II, they also represent a precursor to what will turn out to be Werley’s extraordinary career in nursing research and health care informatics. After the war, Werley worked in the Office of the Surgeon General, was assigned to the Department of Atomic Casualties Studies at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and then she was appointed Chief of the Department of Nursing. She became Chief Nurse for the U.S. 8th Army Headquarters in Korea in 1962 and retired, as Lieutenant Colonel, from the Army Nurse Corps in 1964.
According to the U.S. Army Medical Department, it was at Walter Reed that she became “dismayed” at the lack of research positions and the realization that nurses were not more involved in studies. As a result she decided to concentrate her career on nursing research. After obtaining her Ph.D. in 1969, she promoted nursing research development through faculty and administrative positions at a variety of universities, including the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, became founding editor of Research in Nursing and Health and the Annual Review of Nursing Research, and was instrumental in the development of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NDMS). As described in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, Werley “…became the first nurse informatician even before the field had been named.” While at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, she participated in IBM sponsored conferences to “identify data processing needs in health care and the potential for computer applications.”
This little, unassuming, yet historically important collection, turned out to be originated by a woman who, according to Laurie K Glass RN, PhD, FAAN, Professor Emerita and Director, Center for Nursing History, UW- Milwaukee College of Nursing, “…pioneered the use of computers and informatics in the health care arena.” We are pleased to be able to make available Harriet H. Werley’s images in the AGSL collections.
See all of Harriet H. Werley’s images in the American Geographical Society Library Digital Photo Archive:
See the finding aid for the Harriet H. Werley Papers:
A salute to one of our own. Harriet Helen Werley. (n.d.) U. S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History. U.S. Army. Retrieved from http://history.amedd.army.mil/ancwebsite/articles/harrietwerley.html
Ozbolt JG. Harriet Helen Werley, PhD, RN, FAAN, FACMI: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army (Ret.) October 12, 1914—October 14, 2002. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2003;10(2):224-225. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1276. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC150375/
by Judy Aulik
Wisconsin officially numbered and sign posted its highways between 1916 and 1918, following the state trunk highway system (STH) designed by A.R. Hirst. Illinois followed in 1918 with its first round of state bond highways (SBI), and Michigan began its M system in 1919. After a five year gap, when Rand McNally resumed publishing road maps in 1917, later coupled with a proprietary, rudimentary, coated cardboard road marking system and an arbitrary space saving numbering system, it resulted in a peculiar set of road maps with five distinct highway designations, including the blazed trails, such as the Lincoln Highway. Had Rand McNally chosen the detail allowed by Wisconsin’s unusual county trunk highway lettering systems, it would have had six!
The Wisconsin State Historical Society has digitized maps of this era, as they have unquestionably passed out of copyright. Wisconsin, northern Michigan, and northern Illinois comprise District No. 8 in the Auto Trails Map series. Cartographer John Brink had an entry in a company contest which won him $100. His big idea: make a clearer highway map by numbering the major roads and trails, using a map legend which assigns a Rand McNally route number to each trail.
However, the decluttering concept fell by the wayside as his employer began to sell advertising, primarily for garages and hotels. printed in red in the clear space left.
Clearly, the extra information could prove helpful to the auto tourist. However, Brink’s Rand McNally route numbers, in white on a dark rectangle, generally conflicted with the route numbers used by the states. For example, the National Parks Pike, its eastern terminus in Madison, was designated as No. 9 on the Rand system; STH 19 (designating the highway as the 9th longest in Wisconsin) from Madison west; and blazed in red, black, and white for the National Parks Pike. After 1926, the Federal Highway system, which took over the best state routes, cleared up the confusion. The No. 9 route east of the capital city eventually became US 151; plus STH 19 west, on into Iowa (Primary Route 19; also the National Parks Pike), US 18.
Other highways the Federal Highway System also subsumed included SBI 4, which became US 66; a westerly stretch of the Yellowstone Trail in north central Wisconsin, which became US 10; and the mother of all renamings: the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial Highway (ca. 1915), which became SBI 5 (ca. 1918-1967), which also was co-blazed as the poorly publicized and long forgotten Atlantic-Yellowstone-Pacific Trail (1923, per the Iowa DoT) in northern Illinois, which was taken over by US 20 (ca. 1938, now Business US 20 in segments). Confusing, yes, but that’s why road maps and highway history are so fascinating!
Special thanks to the AGSL guest blogger, Judy Aulik. With an extensive road map collection of her own, Judy Aulik has served as past President of the Road Map Collectors Association, an organization founded in 1996. Now boasting a membership of several hundred in the US, Canada, and Europe, the club publishes a quarterly newsletter, has a website, Facebook page, and hosts an annual “Road Map Expo.” Judy is a retired Adult Services Librarian with a PhD from UW-Madison. She recently spoke to the Wisconsin Map Society about the history of the Milwaukee Journal Tour Club, and its influence on highway signage and mapping.
by Sam Balistreri-Daum
A couple months back, while cataloging the British Admiralty charts in our nautical charts collection, I noticed along the coast and riverbanks of Georgetown, Guyana (then British Guyana) from 1938 and 1939 a series of parallel lines running perpendicular to the shores with names written between each line.
The long, narrow strips of land depicted on these 20th Century British charts are actually an interesting form of human geography called “long lots” or “ribbon farms” that come from the semi-feudal seigneurial system used by the French to administer their agricultural land in the colonies of North and South America. In this system, families would farm long narrow strips of land and pay rent under an agreement with the local seigneur or lord. The main advantage for farmers under this system was waterfront access for transportation and living in close proximity to neighboring farms while still having plenty of land. Some long lots were a few hundred feet wide while being miles deep. While the system was relatively outdated and was not always administratively maintained in the New World (especially once territory came under the control of another government such as the British), we can still see evidence of long lots on maps throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries and even in today’s satellite imagery. In the AGS Library Digital Map Collection it did not take long to find examples in both New Orleans (1884) and Prairie du Chien (1820) to find more examples of long lots:
Long lots are even visible today in satellite imagery near Quebec City along the St. Lawrence River. This image was taken from Google Maps:
These maps show us just one example of the many things that maps can tell us about our world and about ourselves. These maps and many more are available at the AGS Library and online in the digital collections. If you’d like to read more about long lots and the seignieurial system, the following websites were useful in gathering additional information for this post:
Michigan State Univeristy: Long Lots: How they came to be:
Wikipeida.org: “Ribbon Farm”:
by Sam Balistreri-Daum